June 20, 2007 nº 504 - Vol. 5

"The more laws, the more offenders."

Thomas Fuller (1608-1661)

In today's Grammatigalhas: Which are the fundamental lawyering skills and values?

  • Top News

Introducing... Migalhas LatinoAmérica

The legal and business newsletter published in Spanish by Migalhas. The Latin American legal community is a natural expansion for Migalhas and we now have readers from all over Latin America who want indispensable high-quality information on the major issues and personalities that are shaping the legal and business developments in Latin America.

Indeed, Migalhas has commended a lot of attention among leading law firms, financial institutions, multinational companies, consulting firms and government agencies, in Brazil and in the World. Besides Migalhas LatinoAmérica, the newsletter in Spanish, we offer Migalhas International in English and the legendary Migalhas in Portuguese. The Web sites are a complement to these publications and feature reference articles, important opinions on current issues, personality profiles, book reviews, practical information on continuing education, seminars and events.

Ms. Roxana Cazón, the editor of Migalhas LatinoAmerica, said in an interview that "today, law firms face national and international competition and need to adapt to continually changing environment and higher standards of service and we hope this new publication will offer a new focus on the ideas and opportunities of the legal world of Latin and Central America."

Migalhas LatinoAmérica' subscription form, is available. Click here.

Free-Trade Alert: A Warning on Globalization Backlash

Globalization may be hurting low-skilled workers in the U.S. and Europe enough that politicians in both places may find it increasingly hard to sell voters on the benefits of free trade and open markets, says one of the world's leading economic institutes. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, a Paris-based institute backed by the governments of 30 leading industrialized countries, is a staunch believer in free trade, which most economists believe makes all countries richer overall, including those with high wages. But in its annual labor study, the OECD acknowledges growing popular unease about globalization -- the growing integration of the world economy through trade and cross-border investment -- and frets about a popular backlash if governments fail to ensure that lesser-skilled workers share the benefits.

Brazilian Cybercrime Bill needs more transparency

The Brazilian Congress is currently discussing a bill, which intends to criminalize damaging activities committed through electronic means such as the Internet. How can such an important bill be approved, in the next few days, by the Brazilian Senate, while its discussions were not transparent to the public, did not count with the participation of important sectors of the society and it took on premises uncommon for the Brazilian legal system? Rodrigo Guimaraes Colares, president of the Commission for Information Technology of the Brazilian Bar Association (OAB) in Pernambuco and director of the Brazilian Institute for IT Law and Policy (IBDI), discusses these issues in its new article available here.

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1 - Court upholds patent on Plavix. (Read more)

2 - YouTube starts local sites in Brazil, Japan, Europe. (Read more)

3 - States face decisions on who is mentally fit to vote. (Read more)

4 - Court insists on Hyundai sentence. (Read more)

5 - Euro MPs spurn 'pure vodka' bid. (Read more)

6 - New Jersey Court says showing of mental retardation can block execution. (Read more)

7 - Brazil Indians, Google to combat illegal logging. (Read more)


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  • MiMIC Journal

China building more power plants

China is now building about two power stations every week. There was no point blaming China for rising global CO2 emissions; China's emissions per person are still well below those of rich nations. China's emissions growth was being driven by consumers in the West buying Chinese goods. The Chinese had put out their first climate strategy, in an effort "to get to grips with their emissions and use energy efficiently.

China and Brazil to launch 02B satellite in autumn

The Earth Resource 02B satellite, jointly developed by China and Brazil, has been completed, and will undergo a long trial period lasting for twenty days. It is expected to launch in September or October.

The satellite was first assembled and tested at the Brazilian National Space Research Institute. With the common efforts of China and Brazil's technicians, every test, including electrical capability testing, vibration is tests, and noise tests, was completed successfully. This satellite returned to China in April of this year. After its preparations are complete, it will lift into a space environment simulator, and begin to conduct a vacuum thermal test, as well as a series of important larger tests for about twenty days.

  • Grammatigalhas

Legal Meaning Is Not Everyday Meaning

Fact consciousness

An insistence on getting the facts, checking their accuracy, and sloughing off the element of conclusion and opinion.

A sense of relevance

The capacity to recognize what is relevant to the issue at hand and to cut away irrelevant facts, opinions, and emotions which can cloud the issue.


The capacity to see all sides of the problem, all factors that bear upon it, and all possible ways of approaching it.


The capacity to take the long view, to anticipate remote and collateral consequences, to look several moves ahead in the particular chess gam e that is being played.

Lingual sophistication

An immunity to being fooled by words and catch phrases; a refusal to accept verbal solutions which merely conceal the problem.

Precision and persuasiveness of speech

The mastery of language which involves the ability to:

  • state exactly what one means, no more and no less, and
  • reach others with one's own thought, to create in their minds the picture that is one's own.

And finally, pervading all the rest, and possibly the only one that is really basic: self-discipline in habits of thoroughness, and abhorrence of superficiality and approximation.

Everyday "Legal" Jargon

Fundamental lawyering skills and values

Research has shown that existing law school teaching methods and curricula do not adequately teach students the full complement of "lawyering" skills they need to competently practice law.

The core skills and values that are essential for competent lawyering include analytic and problem solving skills, critical reading abilities, writing skills, oral communication and listening abilities, general research skills, task organization and management skills, and the values of serving faithfully the interests of others while also promoting justice. Thus individuals who wish to prepare adequately for legal education, and for a career in law or for other professional service that involves the use of lawyering skills, should seek educational, extra-curricular and life experiences that will assist them in developing those attributes

Ten lawyering skills and four values, as identified in the 1992 Report of the ABA's Task Force on Law Schools and the Profession (commonly known as the MacCrate Report), are fundamental for all members of the legal profession. Each skill and value has two or more components.

The ten fundamental lawyering skills:

  1. Problem solving
  2. Legal analysis
  3. Legal research
  4. Factual investigation
  5. Communication
  6. Counseling
  7. Negotiation
  8. Litigation and alternative dispute resolution
  9. Organizational, administrative and time management skills
  10. Recognizing and resolving ethical dilemmas.

The four fundamental values of the legal profession:

  1. Competent representation
  2. Striving for justice
  3. Striving to improve the profession
  4. Professional self-development.

Skill 1: Problem Solving

In order to develop and evaluate strategies for solving a problem or accomplishing an objective, a lawyer should be familiar with the skills and concepts involved in:

  • Identifying and diagnosing the problem;
  • Generating alternative solutions and strategies;
  • Developing a plan of action;
  • Implementing the plan;
  • Keeping the planning process open to new information and new ideas.

Skill 2: Legal Analysis

In order to analyze and apply legal rules and principles, a lawyer should be familiar with the skills and concepts involved in:

  • Identifying and formulating legal issues;
  • Formulating relevant legal theories;
  • Elaborating legal theory;
  • Evaluating legal theory;
  • Criticizing and synthesizing legal argumentation.

Skill 3: Legal Research

In order to identify legal issues and to research them thoroughly and efficiently, a lawyer should have:

  • Knowledge of the nature of legal rules and institutions;
  • Knowledge of and ability to use the most fundamental tools of legal research;
  • Understanding of the process of devising and implementing a coherent and effective research design.

Skill 4: Factual Investigation

In order to plan, direct, and (where applicable) participate in factual investigation, a lawyer should be familiar with the skills and concepts involved in:

  • Determining the need for factual investigation;
  • planning a factual investigation;
  • implementing the investigative strategy;
  • memorializing and organizing information in an accessible form;
  • deciding whether to conclude the process of fact-gathering;
  • evaluating the information that has been gathered.

Skill 5: Communication

In order to communicate effectively, whether orally or in writing, a lawyer should be familiar with the skills and concepts involved in:

  • Assessing the perspective of the recipient of the communication;
  • Using effective methods of communication.

Skill 6: Counseling

In order to counsel clients about decisions or courses of action, a lawyer should be familiar with the skills and concepts involved in:

  • Establishing a counseling relationship that respects the nature and bounds of a lawyer's role;
  • Gathering information relevant to the decision to be made;
  • Analyzing the decision to be made;
  • Counseling the client about the decision to be made;
  • Ascertaining and implementing the client's decision.

Skill 7: Negotiation

In order to negotiate in either a dispute-resolution or transactional context, a lawyer should be familiar with the skills and concepts involved in:

  • Preparing for negotiation;
  • Conducting a negotiation session;
  • Counseling the client about the terms obtained from the other side in the negotiation and implementing the client's decision.

Skill 8: Litigation and Alternative Dispute Resolution

In order to employ-or to advise a client about-the options of litigation and alternative dispute resolution, a lawyer should understand the potential functions and consequences of these processes and should have a working knowledge of the fundamentals of:

  • Litigation at the trial-court level;
  • Litigation at the appellate level;
  • Advocacy in administrative and executive forums;
  • Proceedings in other dispute-resolution forums.

Skill 9: Administrative Skills Necessary to Organize and Manage Legal Work

In order to practice effectively, a lawyer should be familiar with the skills and concepts required for efficient management, including:

  • Formulating goals and principles for effective practice management;
  • Developing systems and procedures to ensure that time, effort, and resources are allocated efficiently;
  • Developing systems and procedures to ensure that work is performed and completed at the appropriate time;
  • Developing systems and procedures for effectively working with other people;
  • Developing systems and procedures for efficiently administering a law office.

Skill 10: Recognizing and Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

In order to represent a client consistently with applicable ethical standards, a lawyer should be familiar with:

  • The nature and sources of ethical standards;
  • The means by which ethical standards are enforced;
  • The processes for recognizing and resolving ethical dilemmas.

Value 1 Competent Representation

As a member of a profession dedicated to the service of clients, a lawyer should be committed to the values of:

  • Attaining a level of competence in one's own field of practice;
  • Maintaining a level of competence in one's own field of practice;
  • Representing clients in a competent manner.

Value 2 Striving for Justice

As a member of a profession that bears special responsibilities for the quality of justice, a lawyer should be committed to the values of:

  • Promoting justice, fairness, and morality in one's own daily practice;
  • Contributing to the profession's fulfillment of its responsibility to ensure that adequate legal services are provided to those who cannot afford to pay for them;
  • Contributing to the profession's fulfillment of its responsibility to enhance the capacity of law and legal institutions to do justice.

Value 3 Striving to Improve the Profession

As a member of a self-governing profession, a lawyer should be committed to the values of:

  • Participating in activities designed to improve the profession;
  • Assisting in the training and preparation of new lawyers;
  • Striving to rid the profession of bias based on race, religion, ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, or disability, and to rectify the effects of these biases.

Value 4 Professional Self-Development

As a member of a learned profession, a lawyer should be committed to the values of:

  • Seeking out and taking advantage of opportunities to increase his or her knowledge and improve his or her skills;
  • Selecting and maintaining employment that will allow the lawyer to develop as a professional and to pursue his or her professional and personal goals.

These are not qualities, which spring naturally from family background plus a liberal arts education. You will be shocked at your deficiencies in all of them…. But be not dismayed, for the qualities can be acquired and developed…. The important thing is that you realize that this is what [your legal education] is striving for -- this, even more than "teaching law."

Beyond this list of rather earthy qualities, … lie insight, ingenuity, imagination and judgment -- naïve qualities which, distinguish the artist from the artisan, genius from competence. And above all stands character – that indispensable resource in a profession, which is charged with maintaining equal justice under law…

In addition to these fundamental skills and values, there are some basic areas of knowledge that are important to a sophisticated legal education and to the development of a competent attorney. As law becomes more pervasive in our society, an increasingly broad range of knowledge and information from other disciplines become relevant to lawyering and to any full understanding of the legal system. Some of that knowledge, particularly that most directly relevant to particular areas of the law, can be acquired in law school or when necessary for a particular project.

There are, however, generic types of knowledge that one should possess in order to have a full appreciation of the legal system in general, to understand how disputes might be resolved, to understand and apply various legal principles and standards, and to appreciate the context in which a legal problem or dispute arises. Some of the types of knowledge that are most useful and that would most pervasively affect one's ability to derive the maximum benefit from legal education include the following:

  • A broad understanding of history, particularly American history, and the various factors (social, political, economic, and cultural) that have influenced the development of the pluralistic society that presently exists in the United States;
  • A fundamental understanding of political thought and theory, and of the contemporary American political system;
  • A basic understanding of ethical theory and theories of justice;
  • A grounding in economics, particularly elementary micro-economic theory, and an under-standing of the interaction between economic theory and public policy;
  • Some basic mathematical and financial skills, such as an understanding of basic pre-calculus mathematics and an ability to analyze financial data;
  • A basic understanding of human behavior and social interaction; and
  • An understanding of diverse cultures within and beyond the United States, of international institutions and issues, and of the increasing interdependence of nations and communities within our world.

As law has become more woven into the fabric of our society, and as that society is increasingly influenced by disparate national and global forces, a broad knowledge base is essential for success in law school and for competence in the legal profession.

Knowledge of specific areas of law can and will be acquired during a good legal education, but students must come to law school with much fundamental knowledge upon which legal education can build. Thus those considering law school should focus their substantive preparation on acquiring the broad knowledge and perspectives outlined above.

The skills, values and knowledge discussed here may be acquired in a wide variety of ways. One may take undergraduate, graduate, or even high school courses that can assist an individual in acquiring much of the requisite information, skills and perspectives. One may also gain much of this essential background through self-learning (another essential lawyering skill), by reading, in the workplace, or through various other life experiences. Moreover, it is not essential that everyone come to law school having fully developed all of the skills, values and knowledge suggested. Some of that foundation can be acquired during the initial years of law school. However, one who begins law school having already acquired most of the skills, values and knowledge listed in this Statement will have a significant advantage and will be well prepared to benefit fully from a sophisticated and challenging legal education.

As If Your Life Depended On It... or How to get to Carnegie Hall? - Practice, practice

Beat about the bush

Show unnecessary caution, hesitation or delay. ‘Beat the bush’ dates from about 1300 and is found in the 14th century proverb 'One beats the bush, another takes the bird', meaning that one person works and another, the master, profits. The reference is to hunting for game-birds: the beater disturbs it and the hunter ensnares it as it flies from cover. Nowadays game-birds are more likely to be shot in flight; before the invention of gunpowder more caution was needed to get near the bird before hunting could start. This sense of slow approach attached itself to the metaphorical meaning of the current phrase.

Steep learning curve

The phrase “steep learning curve” to describe a difficult-to-master skill is mathematical nonsense. If the horizontal axis of the graph represents time, then the vertical axis is probably supposed to represent effort expended. If a task begins by being very difficult and continues being so for a long time, then the curve would begin high above the zero point on the vertical axis and descend very gradually, producing a shallow learning curve, not a steep one.

Most people imagine a steep learning curve as describing a sharply inclined slope beginning at zero; but logically that sort of curve would describe a task that begins by being very easy and which rapidly becomes harder and harder—not what people mean. The confusion is caused by people’s tendency to think of the curve as if it were a hill to be climbed.

An alternative way of understanding this phrase would be to imagine that the vertical axis represents degree of mastery; but in that case a difficult task would begin at zero and rise very slowly over time—again a shallow curve, not a steep one.

There's little hope of abolishing this ubiquitous bit of pretentious jargon, but you should avoid using it around mathematically sophisticated people.


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  • Historia Verdadera

Constituyente I

Fue cerrada las inscripciones para candidatos a asambleistas en Ecuador. El Tribunal Supremo Electoral (TSE) copiló 25 listas de todo el país con sus postulantes, entre ellas organismos sindicales y partidos políticos tradicionales.

Constituyente II

En Bolivia nuevamente surgen las pugnas entre el gobierno de Evo Morales y dirigentes políticos regionales que propugnan un sistema autonómico en el país. Los denominados autonomistas convocaron a la restencia civil si es que el gobierno no hace caso a sus demandas. Representantes gubernamentales los acusan de intentar “boicotear” la Asamblea.


El vicepresidente de la Confederación de Hidrocarburos de Argentina, Raúl Castellanos, confirmó que hubo entre el 2 ó 3 % de incremento en el precio de los carburantes, el mismo que contó con el respaldo del gobierno de Néstor Kirchner. “Hubo pequeños incrementos en el precio del gasoil” dijo.


A solo cuatro meses de operaciones, el Banco Itaú realizará la primera emisión de bonos en Chile y será por 2,5 millones de UF a 10 años plazo, informó su Gerente de Tesorería, Derek Sassoon. Dijo que las medidas están dentro del proceso de crecimientote la entidad en el área hipotecaria, créditos corporativos de largo plazo y financiamiento de proyectos inmobiliarios.


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  • Brief News

Supreme Court Clerks’ $250,000 Clerkship Bonuses

Supreme Court law clerks that join law firms are now receiving signing bonuses of up to $250,000. On top of their $160,000 starting salaries, that has them making roughly double what their former bosses earn. (Chief Justice Roberts earns $212,000 a year; the other eight each make $203,000.) What should we make of that? While prestige and bragging rights account for much of this bonus-baby behavior, bringing in a former clerk who has the keys to the ultimate club in terms of networking and access is probably worth every dollar–even it it’s 250 thousand of them.

Parmalat's Bondholder Pact Is Upheld

A Milan judge upheld a plea-bargain request by Italian asset manager Nextra in one of the proceedings over alleged market rigging stemming from Parmalat SpA's collapse in 2003, helping bondholders to start recouping some of their losses. The Italian dairy company also announced three out-of-court settlements with banks for €72 million ($96.3 million), closing some of the lawsuits linked to its insolvency under massive debt. Under the plea-bargain agreement, Nextra, which is soon to be part of Intesa Sanpaolo SpA, will reimburse bondholders 1% of the nominal value of the bonds issued, before they lost value. The judge also imposed on Nextra an administrative sanction of €500,000 and the seizure of an additional €1 million.

EU members failing on anti-corruption laws

EU Commissioner for Justice, Free and Security Franco Frattini Monday said that many EU member states have failed to implement EU legislation to combat corruption by making bribery through an intermediary a criminal offense and updating existing anti-corruption legislation to include non-profit organizations. The EU approved the framework decision on combating corruption in the private sector in 2003, and in a report to be forwarded to the Council of the European Union, Frattini said that only Belgium and the United Kingdom have legislation in full compliance with the 2003 decision. EU members were given a July 22, 2005 deadline to implement legislation complying with the EU decision.

Law Firms Willing to Pay to Work for Nothing

Lawyers have long contributed free legal work to those in need. But in recent years, law firms have grown so eager to take on cases "pro bono" that they have started to pay for the privilege. Since 2005, Lawyers Without Borders Inc., a nonprofit organization that focuses on strengthening the legal process around the world, has required that law firms donate at least $7,500 a year to guarantee access to the cases it handles. Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts Inc., a nonprofit which delivers legal services to the arts community, gives first crack at desirable cases to firms that contribute to it. In other, less explicit arrangements, firms give money, office space or clerical help to organizations that funnel pro bono work to them. By the standards of corporate charitable giving, law-firm donations to public-interest groups aren't huge. A typical annual donation from one firm to a single group may be in the range of $20,000, lawyers say. But lawyers at some large firms say it's not uncommon for annual budgets for donations for public-interest organizations to range upwards of $1 million.

'Mafia' trial starts in Chicago

Jury selection has begun in Chicago in what is being billed as the biggest US organised crime trial in years.

Joey "the Clown" Lombardo, who faces charges of racketeering, is alleged to have been the boss of a gang called the Chicago Outfit in the 1970s and 80s. The judge has ordered an anonymous jury for the trial, due to take four months. Defence lawyers have objected on the grounds it will predispose the jurors to think the defendants must be dangerous.

Black 'lied to cover $60m theft'

Media tycoon Conrad Black and key business associates lied in an effort to cover up the "systematic" theft of $60m, prosecutors have alleged. Closing arguments from both sides are expected to last six days, which would take the trial into a 15th week. Summing up, prosecutors told the court that Lord Black and his co-defendants - former Hollinger employees Jack Boultbee, Peter Atkinson and Mark Kipnis - deceived Hollinger's board of directors about the true nature of the money they took out of the business. Defence lawyers have argued that the company authorised "non-competition" payments to Lord Black and colleagues as part of the sale of newspaper titles. But prosecutors claim the deals - designed to reimburse Hollinger for not competing with titles it sold - were not approved and that Lord Black enriched himself at the firm's expense.

Vatican's 'driving commandments'

The Vatican has issued a set of "10 commandments" for motorists to promote safer driving. The "Guidelines for the Pastoral Care of the Road" call on drivers to respect speed limits, refrain from drinking before driving and avoid cursing. Roman Catholics are also urged to make the sign of the cross before setting off on a journey. This is said to be the first time the Vatican has specifically dealt with the growing worldwide problem of road rage.

NY's Bloomberg quits Republicans

New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg leaves the Republicans, fuelling rumours that he may run for president.

IMF steps up exchange rate rules

The International Monetary Fund(IMF) is introducing a new surveillance system for foreign exchange policies that may cause instability in the world economy.

The IMF has updated its existing 30-year-old monitoring scheme, to target currency manipulation that could destabilize trade and capital flows. IMF boss Rodrigo de Rato said the new rules would show "what is acceptable to the international community". The IMF refused to say it was aimed at China, criticized for its yuan rate.

EU Agrees to Protect Napa Wines' Good Name

Wines from California's Napa Valley are granted "geographic indication status" by the European Union. Wine produced outside the valley can't use the Napa name. The concession may affect U.S. vintners who produce wines named for European regions.

Enron Broadband CEO sentenced to 27 months in plea deal

Former Enron broadband division chief Kennith Rice was sentenced to 27 months in prison Monday and ordered to forfeit almost $15 million as part of a plea deal with prosecutors for his testimony against former Enron CEO Jeffrey Skilling and company founder Kenneth Lay .

US appeals court rules against warrantless search of e-mail

The US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled unanimously Monday that the warrantless search of e-mails stored on Internet Service Providers (ISPs) violates the Fourth Amendment, finding that e-mail users correctly maintain a reasonable expectation of privacy and rejecting the government's contention that an ISP's right to screen e-mails for spam and inappropriate content diminished that expectation. The Electronic Frontier Foundation, the American Civil Liberties Union, and the Center for Democracy and Technology filed an amici curiae brief in the lawsuit , arguing that privacy expectations in e-mail communications are analogous to the expectations of privacy that accompany conventional postal mail or telephone communications by e-mail, and urging the court to extend privacy expectation rulings from conventional modes of communication.

Diplomatic row over Rushdie award

Anger over a knighthood for author Salman Rushdie has escalated into a full-blown diplomatic row, with effigies of the Queen burnt in Pakistan and Iran calling her an "old crone".

Special Brazil troops to guard Pan Am games in Rio

Troops from a special national security force will guard the streets of crime-plagued Rio de Janeiro during next month's Pan American Games rather than fight drug gangs in the slums, the mayor said on Tuesday. Rio is due to host 5,500 athletes from 42 countries and territories and nearly 800,000 tourists during 16 days of sports which will be officially opened in the Maracana football stadium on July 13.

Brazil Judge Bans Bayer CropScience's Transgenic Corn

A federal judge banned the use of Bayer CropScience Ltd.'s (506285.BY) transgenic corn just a month after federal biosafety agents approved the product for retail sale

Zurich American, Law Firms Are Fined

A New York federal judge sanctioned Zurich American Insurance Co. and two of its law firms for allegedly attempting to delete evidence and assert unsupported defenses in insurance litigation over the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

Republicans introduce tougher immigration bill in US House

Republicans introduced the Secure Borders FIRST (For Integrity, Reform, Safety and anti-Terrorism) Act to the US House of Representatives Tuesday as a challenge to the White House-sponsored immigration proposal. The bill declares English the nation's official language, requires background checks on all workers, bars all current illegal immigrants from gaining legal status, and calls for an additional 18,000 border patrolmen to be in place by 2008. The proposal also includes a seven-page rebuke of Bush's approach to immigration reform.

  • Daily Press Review


ODM-K top leaders hold secret meetings
East African Standard, Liberal daily of Nairobi, Kenya

Govt sets deadline for wage deal
Mail and Guardian, Liberal daily of Johannesburg, South Africa

I didn't defame Chiluba, says Hichilema
Times of Zambia, Government-owned daily of Lusaka, Zambia


Government must continue support
Barbados Advocate, Independent daily of St Michael, Barbados

Abbas: time to restart peace talks
Buenos Aires Herald, Liberal daily of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Japan changes name of Iwo Jima
The Globe And Mail, Centrist daily of Toronto, Canada

No jobs for slobs - Lack of education, skills, wrong attitude render youth unemployable
Jamaica Gleaner, Centrist daily of Kingston, Jamaica

Fears surface over US role in Mexican drug war
The Guadalajara Colony Reporter, Independent weekly of Guadalajara, Mexico

Asia Pacific

3 killed in Tokyo spa explosion
Daily Yomiuri, Conservative daily of Tokyo, Japan

Chinese President encourages youth delegation to deepen China-Japan friendship
People's Daily Online, Pro-government daily of Beijing, China

Palm Island officer not guilty
The Sydney Morning Herald, Centrist daily of Sydney, Australia

No US Plans to Talk to Maoists, Says Moriarty
The Himalayan Times, Independent daily of Kathmandu, Nepal

RM1.75mil demand
The Sun, Independent daily of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Spate of New Reactor Plans Gives EU an Atomic Jolt
Deutsche Welle, International broadcaster of Cologne, Germany

Finnish communists under secret surveillance for 26 years
Helsingin Sanomat, Centrist daily of Helsinki, Finland

Police base in Ingushetia attacked with grenade launchers
Interfax, Government-owned news agency, Moscow, Russia

Irish trips abroad outstrip incoming visits for first time
Irish Examiner, Centrist daily of Cork, Ireland

Potanin Takes a Swipe at Government
The Moscow Times, Independent, English-language daily of Moscow, Russia

Chinese plan to build road up Everest and take Olympic torch to peak
The Scotsman, Centrist daily of Edinburgh, Scotland

Koç looks at Migros sale
Turkish Daily News, Independent daily of Istanbul, Turkey

Middle East

After the shouting
Al-Ahram Weekly, Semi-official, English-language weekly of Cairo, Egypt

Moussa optimistic Lebanese can overcome differences
The Daily Star, Independent, English-language daily of Beirut, Lebanon

Rushdie row escalates
Gulf News, Independent daily of Dubai, United Arab Emirates

IDF soldier wounded, two militants killed in S. Gaza
Ha'aretz, Liberal daily of Tel Aviv, Israel

Gul urges continued Iran-US talks on Iraq
Islamic Republic News Agency, Government-owned news agency of Tehran, Iran

Dichter to 'Post': Kadima must be ready to replace Olmert
The Jerusalem Post, Conservative daily of Jerusalem, Israel


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The content of the Migalhas International newsletter is edited for purposes of news reporting, comments and education from several sources, including: The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Boston Globe, The London Times, Le Monde, Frankfurter Allgemeine, The Financial Times, Google News, Paper Chase (jurist.law.pitt.edu), The World Press Review: https://www.worldpress.org, Forbes, Fortune, Time, Newsweek, Harvard Business Review, American Lawyer Media, FindLaw.com, Reuters, Associated Press, Internet Business Law Services, Folha de Sao Paulo, O Estado do Sao Paulo, Lexis Nexis, West Law, CNN, The Globe and Mail, The Los Angeles Times, Wikipedia and more.

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This newsletter contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of legal, environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material in this newsletter is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.

The messages that appear in this newsletter are for informational purposes only. They are not intended to be and should not be considered legal advice nor substitute for obtaining legal advice from competent, independent, legal counsel in the relevant jurisdiction.

Transmission of this information is not intended to create, and receipt does not constitute, an attorney-client relationship. The information contained on this list may or may not reflect the most current legal developments.


Copyright 2007 - Migalhas International

The messages that appear in this newsletter are for informational purposes only. They are not intended to be and should not be considered legal advice nor substitute for obtaining legal advice from competent, independent, legal counsel in the relevant jurisdiction.

Transmission of this information is not intended to create, and receipt does not constitute, an attorney-client relationship. The information contained on this list may or may not reflect the most current legal development.